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CPT CodeDescription
87481Candida species/Candida glabrata
87661Trichomonas vaginalis

Vulvovaginal candidiasis

Commonly known as a yeast infection, vulvovaginal candidiasis (candida vaginitis, “CV”) is a result of an overgrowth of fungal organisms, usually Candida albicans. Yeast infections can also be caused by the azole-resistant strain Candida glabrata, which is prevalent 8-16% of the time and requires a different treatment pathway than C. albicans.1,2 The CV/TV assay differentiates between Candida species and C. glabrata and can help healthcare providers determine the most appropriate antifungal therapy for their patients.

Sometimes referred to as “trich”, TV is the most common curable STI in the United States.3 Left untreated, TV infection is associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition and transmission,4,5 prolonged HPV infection6, higher risk of acquiring STIs such as chlamydia, gonorrhea and HPV7, and can lead to premature labor and low birth weight babies.The CDC recommends testing for TV in all women seeking treatment for vaginal discharge.9 The CV/TV assay meets the recommendations by the CDC for a highly sensitive and specific test for detecting TV.

References:

  1. Granato PA. Vaginitis: Clinical and Laboratory Aspects for Diagnosis. Clinical Microbiology Newsletter. Volume 32, Issue 15, 1 August 2010, Pages 111–116.
  2. J. Achkar and B. Fries Clinical Microbiology Rev. Candida infections of the genitourinary tract. 23(2):253-273
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2015 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines. https://www.cdc.gov/std/trichomonas/std-facttrichomoniasis.htm. Updated January 31, 2017. Accessed May 28, 2019.
  4. Mavedzenge SN, Pol BV, Cheng H, Montgomery ET, Blanchard K, de Bruyn G, Ramjee G, Straten Av. Epidemiological synergy of Trichomonas vaginalis and HIV in Zimbabwean and South African women. Sex Transm Dis. 2010 Jul;37(7):460-6.
  5. Petrin D, Delgaty K, Bhatt R, Garber G. Clinical and Microbiological Aspects of Trichomonas vaginalis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1998;11(2):300–317.
  6. Shew M, et al. Association of condom use, sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections with the duration of genital human papillomavirus infection among adolescent women. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.2006;160(2):151-156.
  7. Allsworth J, et al. Trichomoniasis and other sexually transmitted infections: results from the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Sex Transm Dis. 009;36(12):738-744.
  8. MMWR, Vol. 64, Nr. 3. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, June 5, 2015.
  9. CDC. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2015. http://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/trichomoniasis. Reviewed June 4, 2015. Accessed May 28, 2019.